Speech in Children

Uses of language

Infant
  • Commenting and directing
  • Initiation of conversation with familiar adults and children
  • Awareness of feelings/Awareness of social context
  • Use of questioning
  • Use of descriptive language
  • Reporting previous experience
  • Reasoning/explaining
  • Prediction of events
  • Planning
  • Imagining
  • Instructing
  • Awareness of language
Pre-school
  • Expression of feelings, needs and wants
  • Commenting and directing
  • Social greetings
  • Use of language in play
  • Response to and maintenance of conversation
  • Use of questioning
  • Use of descriptive language
  • Reporting previous experience
  • Reasoning
  • Prediction of events
Primary school
  • Initiation of conversation with unfamiliar adults and children
  • Projection of thoughts and feelings
  • Instructing
  • Explaining Imaginative use of language
  • Extended use of questions
  • Planning
  • Hypothesising
  • Inferring and deducing
  • Reflecting on and exploring language
  • Presenting sequenced oral account
  • Giving and considering opinions
 
Speech Training

smiling-kids

Children with Communication Disorders may have:

 

  • poor listening and attention
  • poor auditory memory
  • poor ability to organise themselves and their belongings
  • difficulty in concentrating in a group
  • difficulty in proceeding from one activity to another
  • difficulty with concept formation
  • difficulty with relating to other children

Older Children

  • delayed phonic skills
  • difficulty sequencing ideas
  • problems in generating ideas or constructing a narrative
  • problems with abstract thought
  • problems with problem solving
 

 

The following children may require Speech-Language Therapy:


Infant & Toddler Speech Development Chart

  Comprehension Expressive language Speech-articulation phonology Fluency Play Attention
Birth-6 months Comprehension of tone of voice. Pre-linguistic babbling-intonation patterns.

Exploratory e.g. mouthing, banging-hitting. Level 1

Fleeting attention, highly distractible.

6-9 months Comprehension of gesture e.g. waving bye-bye. Linguistic babbling i.e. consistent with meaning: laughs, chuckles.     Frolic, rough and tumble.
9-12 months Situational understanding: “give mummy a kiss”, words have no individual meaning. First words (range 9-30 months).

Relational.

12-18 months

 (1 – 1½ yrs)

12 months: object recognition
  • generalises labels
  • knows name

Beginning of symbolic understanding.

Two words (range 10-44  months)

Symbolic play begins Level 2

Will attend to own choice of activities.

18-24 months

 (1½ – 2 yrs)

  • 14-15 months: comprehension of large doll play.
  • 18-21 months: comprehension of small doll play.
  • 24 months: comprehension of 2-dimensional representations – pictures.

18 months:
  • p
  • b
  • m
  • n
  • h
  • w
Periods of normal non-fluency. Sequences
  • patterns
  • puzzles

24-30 months

 (2 – 2½ yrs)

24-27 months:
  • Match small toys to pictures
  • One symbol to another
  • True verbal comprehension
  • Relates 2 named objects – “put brush into box”.
  • Three words
  • Uses own name
24 months
  • k
  • g
  • d
  • t
  • ng


Level 3
  • Single channel attention
  • Will attend to adults choice of activity but difficult to control.

 

30-36 months

 (2½ – 3 yrs)

  • Comprehension of verbs increases
  • Relate 2 concepts
  • Comprehension by function e.g. “which do we cook with, which one barks?”
Four words + 30 months
  • f
  • y

36 months

  • r
  • l
  • s

  • Simple construction
  • Make-believe

36-48 months

 (3 – 4 yrs)

  • Complex directions
  • adjectives
  • colour
  • size
  • prepositions
  • pronouns
  • negatives
  • Complex sentences
  • Language directs and integrates practical activities

Speech understood by family

42 months

  • ch
  • sh

  • Planning and organising
  • Role-play
Level 4

Single channel attention easily controlled.

48-54 months

 (4 – 4½ yrs)

Language internalised and integrative.
  • Discussive style
  • Questions why/when.
48 months
  • z
  • j
  • v
  • blends

Speech generally clear, may not use s clusters or k, g and th (fully developed by 7-8 years).

Fluency relapses due to stress up to 6-7 years. Indoor games with complex rules. Level 5

Integrated for short spells

Level 6

5 years. Integrated attention, well controlled and sustained.

playing-infants